By By SFC(R) John Trowbridge, Kentucky National Guard
Kentucky National Guard Public Affairs
In February 1917, mob violence erupted in Murray, Kentucky, during the trial of Lube Martin who was accused of killing policeman, Guthrie Duiguid. The mob threatened to lynch Martin and then threatened the life of Circuit Judge Charles Bush and Commonwealth Attorney Denny Smith. Governor Stanley made a hurried trip to the scene to use this personal influence to avert any further violence. The Governor had no National Guard to call to take control of the situation. The governor was able to make a stand against the mob and stop additional violence. Following the event at Murray, Governor Stanley felt he needed at least part of the National Guard returned from the border, in case of additional trouble at Murray or elsewhere in the State. The governor contacted the War Department and requested three of the Kentucky National Guard companies be returned to the State, to assist in restoring and keeping order during the Martin trial. Three companies were released from Federal service and returned to the State. Once the units arrived, Company D, Third Kentucky Regiment, Hopkinsville, was ordered to Murray. The trial of Lube Martin proceeded with no further incidents.
In July 1917, strikes in the coal fields of Western Kentucky, turned to violence, requiring Governor Stanley to activate Company A, Signal Corps, Kentucky National Guard, Lexington, to Clay and Webster Counties, to restore order and protect the citizens and their property. This was just prior to the August 5th Federal activation of the entire Kentucky National Guard being sent to Camp Shelby, Mississippi, for service in the First World War.
The United States declared war against the Imperial German Government on April 6, 1917, once again, Kentucky would be without the protection and service of the Kentucky National Guard. As the National Guard units left Kentucky, local and State officials were concerned about the possibility of a reoccurrence of incidents such as what had just recently occurred in Western Kentucky. In response to that fear communities across the State were beginning to organize hometown units for self-protection.
The Federal Government enacted the Home Guard Act in 1917, which enable units to be organized in the States as part pf the National Army, their mission was to protect the wartime infrastructure of the United States.
In the latter months of 1917, Governor A. O. Stanley and James Tandy Ellis, The Adjutant General began developing on a plan to protect the State and her citizens while the Kentucky National Guard was in Federal service. On March 26, 1918, Kentucky enacted legislation allowing for the State to maintain troops other than the National Guard, the name given this new organization was the Kentucky State Guard. The name harked back to the State’s Militia organization prior to the Civil War and then again in the late 19th Century up to 1912, when the name changed to the Kentucky National Guard.
The new State Guard was to be composed of four companies of 75 men each, and no more than 500 at a given time. Its mission, to serve and protect the citizens and property of Kentucky. An initial appropriation of $20,000 for organizing the Guard was made, with an additional appropriation of $15,000 annually for three years for the maintenance of the organization. It was to continue in the service of the State during the duration of the war and one year thereafter. Companies were organized at Louisville, Company A; Paducah, Company B; Lexington, Company C; and Covington, Company D.
All the men were between the ages of 18 and 45 years, were citizens of Kentucky, and had to be able to read, write and speak the English language. They were enlisted for a term of three years. Men in the deferred classification of the draft could also be enlisted with the understanding that if called they would be discharged by the Governor from the State Guard. Many of the men, especially the officers had had prior military service and training, either in active service or the National Guard.
There is always one exception to the rules, William “Billy” Bernard O’Neal, age five was appointed the “Mascot” of Company D. He was presented a silver medal, inscribed with his rank of mascot, by Captain Louis V. Crockett. Billy attended and participated in meetings, drills, and camps of the company. During the inauguration at Frankfort in December 1919, Brigadier General James M. DeWeese, spotted young Billy with the men of Company D and asked, “Who is that stern young soldier?” when he learned he was their mascot, the General then appointed him a Colonel, and later mailed him his silver eagles to wear on his uniform.
Each man in the State Guard was issued one overcoat, one khaki shirt, one pair of khaki trousers and a regulation army hat. State Guards were recognized by their green and white hat cords. In addition to the various parts of the uniform issued the men, the Quartermaster issued them blankets and rubber ponchos. The men had to furnish their shoes, which were to be of a standard army style. Enlisted men wore their rank on their sleeves, officers wore the insignia of rank of the sleeves instead of on the collar as in the Regular Army.
Each community had to provide an adequate armory for the storage of weapons (older model Springfield rifles and M1911 pistols), ammunition and additional field equipment for their hometown company.
While Brigadier General James Tandy Ellis was attempting to establish units of the State Guard, his attention was drawn to the fact that communities across the State were organizing and arming their own local military units with shotguns and various other weapons. He feared that these individuals had the best intentions, but he drew their attention to the State law prohibiting such activity. Through newspaper articles and notices the General was finally able to put a stop this unlaw activity.
Section 136, of the Act of 1916, which makes it “unlawful for anybody of men, other than the regular organized militia or troops of the United States to associate themselves together as a military company or other armed organization or to drill or parade with arms anywhere within the State without license of the Governor thereof.”
Before the first company of the State Guard could be organized trouble started in the oil fields in Lee County. Governor A. O. Stanley was called upon to provide troops to put down disorder in the region. With no State troops available, the Governor quickly requested assistance from the Federal Government, however, when word got out that troops would be coming, the mob activity stopped.
On May 8, 1918, Company A, at Louisville, was mustered-into State service as part of the Kentucky State Guard. The following day at Paducah, Company B, was mustered-into service. Company C, at Lexington, was mustered on May 23, 1918, followed by Company D, at Covington, on August 6, 1918. The final unit of the State Guard was a Machine Gun Detachment organized at Leitchfield on February 12, 1920.
During its existence, the Kentucky State Guard not only provided much needed protection and security for the Commonwealth, but preformed in numerous ceremonies, parades, and military funerals. They participated and performed at various war-time fund raising events in their communities. Companies held dances at their armories to raise funds to pay for any additional expenditures the company might incur, such as additional food, additional equipment, and encampments.
The companies normally met at their armories twice a week in the evening hours for drill and classroom work.
The Kentucky State Guard attempted one state sanctioned encampment. It was to be held in late August 1919. At the time, it was felt bringing all the units together at one location would assist in building the nucleus for the organization of the post-war Kentucky National Guard. Approval to use Camp Zachary Taylor in Louisville had been granted by the War Department, but for various reasons the decision was finally made that each company would hold its own encampment. The Kentucky State Guard never came together for one state encampment. For the 1919 encampment the State paid the Guardsmen while in camp, as well as covering all camp expenses. The men received the following pay:
Privates, $1.50 per day.
Cook and Sergeants (including Supply Sergeant), $2.00 per day.
Color Sergeant/First Sergeant, $2.50 per day.
First Lieutenant, $4.50 per day.
Second Lieutenant, $4.00 per day.
Captain, $5.00 per day.
Below are the dates and location for the 1919 encampments:
Company A, Camp Zachary Taylor, August 23-30. Company B, Dawson Springs, August 23-30. Company C, Fort Boonesboro, August 24-31. Company D, Spring Lake, August 25 to September 1.
On September 14, 1918, Company C, at Lexington would become the first unit to be order to active service, participating in the funeral of Kentucky Senator Joseph C. S. Blackburn. Company B, at Paducah went on active service to protect prisoner Gus Nolan in the McCracken County jail, however, there is no special order issued for this duty and all local officials claimed that they had not requested the assistance of the Guard. After two days, it was apparent there was no plan to lynch Nolan, Captain Gladstone Burns dismissed his soldiers.
On November 11, 1918, the First World War came to an end. It was hoped that soon the Kentucky National Guard would be marching home and once again take over its pre-war duties, or so it was assumed. Confusion arose over whether or not the Kentucky National Guard would automatically resume its pre-war function with its members just returning from Federal service, or that a totally new National Guard organization would take its place, and that of the State Guard.
Governor James D. Black in a proclamation dated June 24, 1919, declared that the Kentucky National Guard still exists and those soldiers who were mustered into the National Army automatically go back into the Guard when they are mustered out of the federal service. The Governor held the opinion that only he could discharge them from the Guard. Additionally, he stated, “that any man who fails to approve in writing such continuance of his status shall be automatically dropped from the Guard” and “that no officer or man who was drafted into the Army of the United States shall be permanently retained in the service of the National Guard of the State contrary to his will.” The Kentucky National Guard was re-established. However, it would be many months before it was completely re-organized and properly functioning. Until them elements of the Kentucky State Guard were still actively involved in the State.
Newspapers across the State report that the sons of Kentucky had come marching home with glory and poor old dad was still in “Dutch,” facing two more years of weekly drills, etc. The Government was “not going to let him out. He is not going to be discharged, unless he loses a leg or can prove to the disability board that he is blind in one eye and has a weak back.” A new policy of strictness against “ditching” drill was announced. Members were warned to attend drill. If they failed, investigations and possible court martial would ensue, if convicted dad would be dishonorably discharged, he forfeited his right of citizenship. He would never be able to vote again. “Dad had better have a gilt-edged alibi to fool Uncle Samuel.”
On July 14, 1919, Company D at Covington received an emergency call to duty. The following is the local newspaper account of what occurred:
Visions of Horror Rise
As Kentucky Guards Hasten to Scene of “Lynching.”
Efficiency is Demonstrated, But it’s a Long Way to Winston Hill on a Night in July.
Came the sharp, clear call to arms of the burgle, breaking in upon the weekly drill of the Kentucky State Guard at the Latonia Barracks. Inside all is hurried, but orderly confusion. From mouth to mouth it is explained that a long-distance telephone message from Adjutant General Tandy Ellis at Frankfort reports the body of a man hanging from a telegraph pole at the top of Winston Hill five miles away.
Eighty-five members of the guard fall in at attention. “Squads right, march; double time, march!” come from the crisp commands of Captain L. V. Crockett.
The men break from a hurried shamble into a steady jog. One mile, two miles, three miles are gone. The guards are growing weary, but in their excited minds they picture the figure of the gruesome object dangling from the pole.
Has Kentucky mob spirit, so long docile, reasserted itself. Has a victim paid for a dastardly crime with his life? Did the crime warrant the summary action? Who comprised the mob? Were their friends, their neighbors, mayhap their sons and brothers, participants? Will they be forced to pursue them?
These questions and a hundred other race through their brains like wildfire as their labored breathing brings them to the foot of Winston Hill. Another mile has passed, and almost another. They are on the last lap.
Overhead a benign moon sends a flood of silvery light over the terrain for miles around. They can see the lonesome figure now, silhouetted in the moonlight, dangling from the cross-pieces of the pole. Beneath, the ground is spotted with red. Their worst fears are realized. Where is the mob?
In their excitement they break ranks and gather hurriedly around the figure. Who is the unfortunate? They look at the ground. Is that blood? A wrathful cry breaks from one of the members. They crowd forward to identify the victim. It is a dummy stuffed with sawdust.
Back at the barracks, sweating, dusty. Tired, with a lurid string of language stretching behind them to the figure in the moonlight, it is explained the call was a test to determine the efficiency of the organization.
Such is war?
It was September 5, 1919, that Company B, at Paducah was the first company to be mustered-out of the State Guard, followed by Company A, Louisville, on October 24.
Both Company C and D were still active and were ordered on December 5, 1919, to participate in the inaugural ceremonies at Frankfort, on December 9, for Governor-elect Edwin P. Morrow.
One major event which occurred in the history of the State Guard came in February 1920. Company D of Covington was ordered to Frankfort on February 7, to escort prisoner Will Lockett, charged with murder, to the Fayette County Courthouse, to stand trial.
The day before the trial commenced, Adjutant General James DeWeese issued a warning to citizens of Fayette and adjoining counties against any demonstration at the trial in Lexington. He said:
“The request to Gov. Morrow for state military force at the trial of Will locket, made by Judge Kerr, has been granted and ample forces will be present to aid the civil authorities in preserving order.
“Warning is hereby given to all persons that any attempt by individuals or groups to obstruct the civil authorities in the performance of their duty or to penetrate the zone fired by the military authorities will be met with force.
“Additional warning is given herewith that loitering or lingering about the approaches to the courthouse will place those persons in the danger zone should a resort to force be necessary. Individuals or groups will do this at their own peril.
“The responsibility for any bloodshed at this trial will rest on those who disregard their duty as citizens and attempt to take the law out of the hands of the constituted authorities. It is confidently expected that the citizens of Fayette County will respect the law as administered by their own officials and citizens.”
The morning of February 9th an estimated 4,000 citizens surrounded the Fayette County Courthouse. The trial was to begin at 9 a. m. A shout came from the crowd, “Let’s get him,” and the mass moved towards the entrance of the courthouse, engaging policemen, deputy sheriffs and the Guardsmen in hand-to-combat. As the crowd pushed the guards to the doors of the courthouse, and after numerous commands to halt, the command, “fire” was given and following a number of volleys, the crowd finally fell back across the street. Five dead and numerous wounded were quickly removed. One of those wounded was Sergeant Elmer Moore of Company D.
Upon hearing of the situation in Lexington, and fearing further violence, Governor Morrow requested Federal assistance and 400 soldiers from Camp Zachary Taylor, under the command of Brigadier General Francis C. Marshall was sent to the scene to assist and restore order. General Marshall immediately declared Martial Law for the City of Lexington. The Latonia Guards were stood down and relieved from State duty. A total of five persons were killed and twenty wounded including Guardsman Elmer Moore.
In a newspaper interview Brigadier General Marshall made the following comments concerning the actions of Brigadier General DeWeese:
The action of General DeWeese in opening fire on the crowd that tried to storm the Court House Monday was “Fine,”
General DeWeese faced an extremely difficult task and he handled it with credit.
When the sober senses of Kentucky are brought to bear upon his action, it will be approved. General DeWeese is entitled to the highest credit.
In the days following the incident at Lexington, the men of Company D, were lauded for their actions in putting down the riot and upholding the law by the Governor, elected official and in the newspapers. However, there were threats made against some individuals. In an anonymous letter mailed from Cincinnati read: “Your time is coming soon, you low-lived murderer. You will be burned alive sooner or later. County Judge Bullock, Judge Charles Kerr, Capt. L. V. Crockett and also that man who calls himself Governor of Kentucky will be burned. Several men were killed in Lexington, so more will be killed hereafter.”
For a number of days additional security for those threated was maintained, but no action was taken against them.
Following his trial and sentencing Will Lockett was moved to Eddyville Prison to await execution. February 12, 1920, Captain William Taylor, and the Machine Gun Detachment was ordered to Eddyville Prison to assist in guarding Will Lockett, prior to his execution.
Towards the later part of February, a special grand jury was held to investigate the riot in Lexington. The final report released on February 27, held no one accountable for the actions of the crowd, the follow statement was made concerning the Kentucky State Guard:
In our investigations we have examined many witnesses and endeavored to ascertain as far as they could be identified those who engaged and indulged in inciting the crowd to violence by inflammatory speeches and actions, and particularly those who actually made an effort to force their way into the court house for the purpose of taking possession of the prisoner by overpowering the officers of the law and the soldiers of the State Guard, who were sent to the county by the Governor of the State to support the civil authorities in protecting the prisoner from violence and in upholding the law. . .
We believe that the Adjutant General and officers in charge of the State Guard and it soldiers, the Sheriff and his deputies and the policemen used every effort without resorting to the use of firearms until the last extremity to prevent the turbulent members of the crowd from forcing their way into the courthouse and over-powering the authorities for the purpose of taking possession of the prisoner and wreaking their vengeance upon him.
The evening before his execution, March 11, 1920, Will Lockett told reporters that he was satisfied that justice had been done and expressed appreciation to the soldiers who had saved him from the mob. He also thanked Captain Taylor, of the Leitchfield company, eight members of which had guarded the prison, and presented him with small testaments which he autographed with the words, “To remember me by.”
February 21, 1920, Troop A, 123rd Cavalry Regiment, Frankfort, under command of Captain James K. Dillion, became the first unit of the post-war Kentucky National Guard.
During March and April 1920, “Night Rider” raids in the “Black Patch” tobacco region of Western Kentucky, required the assistance of the Machine Gun Detachment to restore order and protect citizens and property in Graves County.
On April 29, 1920, Company C, at Lexington, was mustered-out of the service of the Kentucky State Guard.
In May 1920, Company D, was located at Brooksville, Kentucky, to maintain peace during the trial of Thomas Marksberry, accused of murder.
On July 21, 1920, the Machine Gun Detachment was ordered to Springfield in Washington County, to protect prisoner, Robert Logan, accused of murder, during his trial.
Troubles along the Kentucky-West Virginia border had been on-going for some time things erupted between the union and non-union coal miners in July 1920, necessitating a call for troops. In late July, Company D and the Machine Gun Detachment were activated to participate and restoring law and order to the area. This would be the last activation of the Kentucky State Guard. Soon after, the final two units of the State Guard were disbanded.
By the end of August 1920, the Kentucky State Guard ceased to exist, being replaced by the Kentucky National Guard. Many of the men who had served in the State Guard went on to continue to serve the citizens of the Commonwealth in the Kentucky National Guard.
Thanks to the laws enacted and the service provided by the Kentucky State Guard during the First World War, this state’s defense force got its beginning and began a process which has evolved over the years. At the beginning of the Second World War, legislation was enacted establishing the Kentucky Active Militia, for service during that war. Today, under Kentucky law, the Governor of Kentucky has the legal authority to activate the state’s defense force, known as the Kentucky State Defense Force, whenever any part of the Kentucky National Guard is in federal service.
Federal and State Legislation Which Led to the
Establishment of the Kentucky State Guard
65th Congress, Session 1, Chapter 28. 14 June 1917, An Act to authorize the issue to States
and Territories and the District of Columbia of rifles and other property for the equipment of organization of home guards, p. 181.
An Act to authorize the issue to States and Territories and the District of Columbia of rifles and other property for the equipment of organizations of home guards.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of War during this existing emergency be, and he is hereby, authorized, in his discretion, to issue from time to time to the several States and Territories and the District of Columbia for the equipment of such home guards having the character of State police or constabulary as may be organized by the several States and Territories and District of Columbia, and such other home guards as may be organized under the direction of the governors of the several States and Territories and the Commissioners of the District of Columbia or other State troops or militia, such rifles and ammunition therefor, cartridge belts, haversacks, canteens, in limited amounts as available supplies will permit, provided that the property so issued shall remain the property of the United States and shall be receipted for by the governors of the several States and Territories and Commissioners of the District of Columbia and accounted for by them under such regulations and upon furnishing such bonds or security as the Secretary of War may prescribe, and that any property so issued shall be returned to the United States on demand when no longer needed for the purposes for which issued, or if, in the judgment of the Secretary of War, an exigency requires the use of the property for Federal purposes: Provided, That all home guards, State troops and militia receiving arms and equipment as herein provided shall have the use, in the discretion of the Secretary of War and under such regulations as he may prescribe, of rifle ranges owned or controlled by the United States of America.
Approved, June 14, 1917.
Report of the Chief of the Militia Bureau, 1918-1919, p. 21.
Under the act of June 14, 1917, Congress authorized the issue of “rifles, ammunition, cartridge belts, haversacks, and canteens” to States for the use of home guards, State troops and similar military organizations not recognized as National Guard units, such issues to be limited to the articles cited and to the period of the emergency. Most of the States availed themselves of this provision and obtained the articles mentioned, the State authorities being bonded for their safekeeping and return and also being required to insure the property against loss by fire. Under the present law and regulations, these articles, excepting such ammunition as may have been expended, are to be returned to the Federal Government upon the termination of the war emergency. The number of arms issued to the States for home guard purposes up to June 30, 1919, aggregated 78,008.
Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1918, pp. 123-125.
AN ACT to repeal and re-act Section 12 of Chapter 43, Acts of the General Assembly, of 1916, which act is entitled, “An Act to amend and re-enact Chapter 142, of the Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth, approved March 19th, 1912, entitled, “An Act to provide for the organization, armament, discipline and government of the militia,” and in so doing to provide for the organization, armament, equipment, discipline and government of a State Guard, and making an appropriation for same.
Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky:
Sec. 12, sub-section 1. That Section 12, of Chapter 43, of the Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, approved March 23, 1916, entitled, “An Act to amend and re-enact Chapter 142 of the Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, approved March 12, 1912, entitled, “An Act to provide for the organization, armament, equipment, discipline and government of the militia,” be and the same is repealed and re-enacted, and as re-enacted said Section shall be and read as follows, to-wit:
Sub-section 2. State Guard to be organized and Employed. The Governor is hereby authorized to organize, arm, equip, maintain, control, regulate and train a State Guard, in numbers not to exceed at any time five hundred officers and men, said guard to be composed of volunteers from the reserve militia of the Commonwealth and when organized to be known as the Kentucky State Guard, and to do service only within the confines of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.
Sub-section 3. In the organization, enlistment, equipment, armament, discipline, government, regulation, pay, service, trials, discharge and mustering out of said Kentucky State Guard, the provisions of this act, beginning with Section 1, and ending with Section 143, shall apply in every particular with the following exceptions to-wit:
Sub-section 4. For the purposes of organizing, equipping, arming, maintaining and training the Kentucky State Guard, as is herein provided, there is hereby appropriated out of any funds in the treasury, not otherwise appropriated, the sum of twenty thousand dollars, and an annual appropriation of fifteen thousand dollars, to be paid out and disbursed in the same manner and by the same authorities as is provided in section 53 of this act; provided, however, that the annual appropriation herein shall be for three years from the date of the passage of this act, unless the proper authorities shall prior to the end of the three years, muster out the entire State Guard, in which event the appropriation shall then cease to be available, and any unused part thereof shall revert to the General Expenditure Fund of the Commonwealth; and provided further that the Governor may in his discretion disburse any part of the appropriation provided in section 53 hereof, for the equipment or maintenance of the Kentucky State Guard, in the same manner as is therein provided, specifically and generally, for the expenditure of the Military Fund, and as is herein provided for the appropriation herein made.
Sub-section 5. As there is now no Guard in the Commonwealth available for emergency service within the Commonwealth, nor is there likelihood to be such Guard during the period of the war, nor possibly long thereafter, an emergency is declared to exist, and this act shall be and become effective upon its passage and approval.
Approved March 26, 1918.
Active Service Missions of the Kentucky State Guard
Special Orders No. 27, dated, 14 September 1918.
24 personnel from Company C, Lexington to Frankfort. To participate in the funeral of
Senator Joseph C. S. Blackburn.
No Special Order found. 01 February 1919.
Members of Company B, Paducah. Guarded prisoner Gus Nolen in McCracken
Special Orders No. 24, dated 05 December 1919.
Companies C, Lexington, and D, Covington, designated to participate in the
Inaugural ceremonies at Frankfort, Kentucky, December 9, 1919.
Special Orders No. 5, dated 06 February 1920.
Company D, Covington, ordered into active service, and will proceed from Covington, to Frankfort, reporting to The Adjutant General.
Special Orders No. 6, dated 07 February 1920.
Company D, Covington, stationed at Frankfort, under the direction of General James M. DeWeese, The Adjutant General, will escort the prisoner, Will Lockett, charged with murder, from Frankfort, Kentucky, to Lexington, Kentucky, for trial, and will remain on duty until relieved by the Circuit Judge.
Special Orders No. 7, dated 12 February 1920.
Captain William W. Taylor and a detachment of eight men of the Kentucky State Guard stationed at Leitchfield, proceed to Eddyville State Prison during the execution of William Lockett.
Special Orders No. 18, dated 01 April 1920.
William W. Taylor and a detachment of eight men will proceed from Leitchfield to Mayfield, for duty in connection with the recent outbreak and burning of a tobacco chute in Graves County, and for the purpose of maintaining peace and order and the preservation of life and property.
Special Orders No. 26, dated 06 May 1920.
Company D, Covington, will proceed to Brooksville, for the trial of Thomas Marksberry, charged with murder, and will remain on duty until completion of the trial or until relieved by the Circuit Judge. Detachment on duty until 31 May 1920.
Special Orders No. 48, dated 21 July 1920.
Captain William W. Taylor and a detachment of ten men will proceed to Louisville, and report to the Adjutant General. Brigadier General James M. DeWeese, The Adjutant General, will supervise the assembling of a unit from the different detachments ordered to report to him at the armory. The organization when completed will proceed to Springfield, Kentucky, under the command of Captain James K. Dillion, and under the general supervision of The Adjutant General, for the purpose of protecting the prisoner, Robert Logan, accused of murder, en route to Springfield and during the trial. On the conclusion of the trial, they will escort the prisoner to such place as directed by the Circuit Judge.
Special Orders No. 50, dated 26 July 1920.
Thirteen Personnel, Company D along with members of the Kentucky National
Guard sent to Pike County to preserve peace and protect life and property.
Special Orders No. 51, dated 27 July 1920.
Twenty-three personnel, Company D, Covington, proceed to Williamson, West
Virginia, on July 28, 1920 reporting to the Adjutant General for instructions.
Special Orders No. 54, dated 31 July 1920.
Captain William W. Taylor and a detachment of 5 men, will proceed from Leitchfield, to Lackyville, where Captain Taylor will assume charge of the detachment on duty at that place.
KENTUCKY STATE GUARD 1918 – 1920
Commander-in-Chief: Governor Augustus Owsley Stanley
(1915 – 19 May 1919)
Governor James D. Black
(19 May 19 – 09 December 1919)
Governor Edwin P. Morrow
(09 December 1919 – 11 December 1923)
Office of the Adjutant General
Adjutant General: Brigadier GeneralJames Tandy Ellis
(1917 – 1919)
Brigadier General James M. DeWeese
Judge Advocate General: Major George B. Martin
(29 May 1918)
Inspector General: Major Charles W. Longmire
(27 August 1919)
Captain Carl D. Norman
Quartermaster: Major Walker Crossfield
(08 May 1918)
Clerk, Office of the
Adjutant General and
Custodian of the State
Arsenal: Captain William S. Johnson
(29 May 1918 to 15 December 1919)
John B. Willis
(15 December 1919 to 01 September 1920)
Mustering Officer: Captain Frank H. Lusse
First Battalion, Kentucky State Guard
Company A – Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky.
Muster-in: 08 May 1918. Muster-out: 24 October 1919.
Captain James P. Gregory 17 May 1918.
(Resigned 23 July 1918, to First Lieutenant U.S. Home Guards, National Army.)
Captain Harry Bryant Tileston, Jr. 17 May 1918.
(Promoted to Second Lieutenant, 26 July 1918. Promoted to Captain, 02 August 1918.)
First Lieutenant Robert Greer Gordon 17 May 1918.
(Resigned 30 December 1918.)
First Lieutenant J. Harding Ward, Jr. 17 May 1918.
(Promoted to Captain, 26 July 1918. Resigned, 1 August 1918. Promoted to First Lieutenant, 10 January 1919.)
Second Lieutenant G. B or V. Vick 08 May 1918.
(Promoted from Sergeant to Second Lieutenant, 02 August 1918.)
Dr. Curran Pope (Company Physician) 17 May 1918
Enlisted and Non-Commissioned Officers, Company A:
Atkisson, A. R.
Beeler, James A. 10 December 1918 Officer’s Training Camp
Boss, Frank J.
Brough, A. F.
Brown, Floyd E,
Bryan W. R.
Bryan, Volney H.
Burton, George C. 10 December 1918 Officer’s Training Camp
Campbell, John B.
Campbell, William B.
Clerget, Frank C.
Clingman, W. F.
Collins, H. A.
Converse, E. A., Jr.
Costello, A. T.
Cox, W. N.
Crosier, O. R.
Davidson, Morris W.
Escott, James S. 10 December 1918 Enlisted US Army
Everbach, Gerald S. 10 December 1918 Physical disability
Fatthauer, J. Harry
Gray, Ben P.
Gregory, James P.
Griffo, Frank S,
Griswold, D. B.
Hackett, L. J.
Hall, William Q.
Haney, L. T.
Harth, Spencer Mac
Hermes, G. August, Jr.
Holmes, Harry B.
Holsclaw, C. A.
Isaacs, C. Lane
Isaacs, J. L.
Jaeger, Peter C.
Jones, W. L.
Kelly, R. M., Jr.
Krebs, Charles W.
Langan, Edward J.
Lochner, Adam H.
Loomis, Charles C.
Lowman, M. B.
Marshall, Bernard G.
Mason, A. H., Jr.
Mason, E., Jr. 10 December 1918 Inability to attend, business.
McCoy, J. C.
Miller, DeWitt J.
Mourning, William H.
Mullican, C. W.
Murphy, J. C.
Newcomb, H. V.
Nold, Charles M.
Payne, N. Lee
Palfrey, Emmet P.
Payton, William F. 10 December 1918 Removal from city
Pearson, E. C., Jr.
Pearson, W. C.
Phillips, Charles E.
Powell, H. M.
Powers, Hugh E. 10 December 1918 Student, Army Training Corps
Rehm, Earl C.
Renau, Adolph G., Jr.
Revell, H. M.
Robards, Marion A.
Rodman, Sam E.
Rosenbaum, Isidor 03 September 1918 Inability to attend, business.
Rosenfield, J. L.
Rothweiler, Charles H.
Ruhl, F. M.
Sanders, N. Marion 10 December 1918 Enlisted US Army
Scanlon, V. J.
Schroeder, Henry H.
Semonin, Paul F.
Shuter, J. C.
Smith, Harry S.
Smith, J. E.
Spencer, H. W.
Steele, Robert M.
Tippett, Alex W.
Tuley, Thomas S. 03 September 1918 Inability to attend, business.
Tileston, H. B., Jr. 02 August 1918 Promoted to Captain
Vick, G. B. 02 August 1918 Promoted to Second Lieutenant
Vollmer, J. M.
Warren, Guy S. SGT 25 September 1918 Student Officer, Motor Transport Svc.
Warren, Harry C., Jr.
Williams, James A. 03 September 1918 Removal from state
Yarbrough, E. W. 30 July 1918 Enlisted US Army
Zeiser, W. H.
Company B – Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky.
Muster-in: 09 May 1918. Muster-out: 05 September 1919.
Captain Gladstone Burns 08 May 1918.
(Resigned, 16 August 1919.)
First Lieutenant Russell L. Long 08 May 1918.
(Acting Captain, 16 August 1919.)
Second Lieutenant (Dr.) Luther M. Bruce 08 May 1918.
Enlisted and Non-Commissioned Officers, Company B:
Acree, Joseph B.
Adams, Harry 22 May 1918 Corporal Squad 6
Ashby, William H. 22 May 1918 Corporal Squad 1 24 January 1919 Physical disability
Ashton, Byron F. 13 July 1918 Removal from state
Aycock, Walter F. 16 September 1918 Removal from state
Balthaser, Max B,
Barksdale, Richard M.
Barnes, Edward K. 24 January 1919 Enlisted US Army
Berry, Mahlon B. 16 September 1918 Enlisted US Navy
Berry, Noel A. 22 May 1918 Corporal Squad 2
26 August 1919 Inability to attend, business.
Bloomingston, Herbert W. 22 May 1918 Sergeant, left guide
24 January 1919 Removal from city
Bonds, Edward K.
Browne, George T. 22 May 1918 Corporal Squad 3
24 January 1919 Officers’ Training Camp
Byrd, Mel, Jr. 22 May 1918 Corporal Squad 7
Camisa, John L.
Campbell, John P. 22 May 1918 Sergeant, right guide 16 September 1918 Enlisted US Army
Carpenter, Fendall E. 25 August 1919 Removal from state
Cave, Edward A.
Childers, Reuben M.
Cochran, George A. 22 May 1918 Sergeant 13 July 1918 Enlisted US Navy
Copeland, Van D. 24 January 1919 Enlisted US Navy
Counts, John W. 29 August 1918 Enlisted US Navy
Counts, W. H.
Craig, Clarence B.
Davis, Carmer L. 08 November 1918 Removal from city
Derrington, Jesse E.
Dorian, Charles B. 24 January 1919 Listed US Navy
Ebbert, Edward A. 22 May 1918 Sergeant/Bugler
Edelen, Homer R. 25 August 1919 Inability to attend, business.
Englert, Elmer W.
Fisher, Robert G.
Fristoe, Thurman G.
Gentry, James M. 25 August 1919 Removal from city
Harris, Richard L. 25, August 1919 Inability to attend, business.
Horton, Charles 22 May 1918 Quartermaster-Color Sergeant 6 September 1918 Enlisted YMCA foreign service
Hay, Alex B.
Haynes, James W. 16 September 1918 Enlisted US Navy
Hoffman, Joseph L.
Householder, Clarence B. 25 August 1919 Inability to attend, business.
Hughes, William H. 16 September 1918 Enlisted US Army
Humphrey, Robert 22 May 1918 Corporal Squad 8
Jennings, Thomas M. 16 September 1918 Enlisted US Navy
Kilpatrick, Elmer J.
Kincannon, Joseph F. 13 July 1918 Physical disability
Leies, Charles 13 July 1918 Removal from city
Lockwood, Isaac T.
Lockwood, J. Tuttle
Loeb, Rudolph 13 January 1919 Inability to attend, business.
Luigs, John Raymond 24 January 1919 Enlisted US Army
Lusk, Charles Henry 16 September 1918 Removal from city
McMahon, Joseph W.
Neil, Estell W.
Neville, Wayne H.
Parker, Alonzo C. 13 July 1918 Removal from city
Prather, Roy M. 24 January 1919 Officer’s Training Camp
Reed, Roscoe 22 May 1918 Corporal Squad 5
08 November 1918 Officer’s Training Camp
Rhodes, John Philip 21 May 1918 Enlisted US Navy
Riley, Edward C. 24 January 1919 Inability to attend, business.
Roberts, George C. 24 January 1919 Enlisted US Navy
Robertson, Robert 13 July 1918 Removal from state
Rock, Robert O. 24 January 1919 Enlisted US Navy
Rodgers, Thomas A. 25 August 1919 Inability to attend, business.
Rouse, Paul A. 16 September 1918 Removal from city
Saling, Woodford M. 16 September 1918 Physical disability
Seamon, D. Curtis 22 May 1918 First Sergeant
24 January 1919 Enlisted US Navy
Singleton, Harry F.
Smiley, Creath B.
Staten, Byers A. 22 May 1918 Corporal Squad 4
Switzer, James H.
Tagnon, Victor A.
Warner, Charles G.
Watson, Ursia G.
Wilkey, Martin C. 08 November 1918 Enlisted US Navy
Williamson, John Elliott 16 September 1918 Enlisted US Army
Wyatt, Garnett A. 25 August 1919 Removal from state
Company C – Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky.
Muster-in: 23 May 1918. Muster-out: 29 April 1920.
Captain James R. Sams 23 May 1918.
First Lieutenant James A. Dodd 23 May 1918.
(Resigned, 1 April 1919.)
First Lieutenant Joseph Holmes Martin 23 May 1918.
(Promoted from Second Lieutenant to First Lieutenant, 17 April 1919.)
Second Lieutenant Levi J. Horlacher 17 April 1919.
(Promoted from First Sergeant to Second Lieutenant, 17 April 1919.)
Enlisted and Non-Commissioned Officers, Company C:
Baker, Earl P. 18 March 1919 Removal from county
Bennett, Arthur F.
Bobo, Marion S. 18 March 1919 Removal from state
Bowles, Thomas W.
Bunch, Frank First Sergeant
Bundy, George W.
Butcher, George L.
Cheek, Charles C. 18 March 1919 Enlisted US Marine Corps
Cook, Charles Y.
Cook, Harry P.
Cook, Robert L.
Corbin, James C. 03 September 1918 Drafted US Army
Cummins, William E.
Darnell, C. Corporal
Dickerson, Lucian T.
Doyle, J. L. Sergeant
Duncan, John 18 March 1919 Enlisted US Marine Corps
Estes, Walter C.
Farmer, James C.
Foushee, Homer L.
Ginacchio, John B. 03 September 1918 Drafted US Army
Glass, James F.
Glass, Joseph E.
Gott, Edwin J.
Graves, George D. 10 March 1919 Physical disability
Hacking, Ray C.
Haverly, William M.
Hibs, Jesse M. 18 March 1919 Removal from state
Hillard, Francis M.
Honican, Herbert 03 September 1918 Enlisted US Army
Horine, George J.
Howard, William W.
Hudson, Garland E. Corporal
Hutson, John B.
Iravis, William M.
Jacobs, Fred A.
Kerr, James M.
Lambert, Earl H.
Lambert, Roy W.
Lawill, John 19 August 1918 Removal from state
Lenahan, Charles E.
Lowry, J. W. Supply Sergeant
Marquis, Lawrence O.
Messick, Carroll R.
Milton, John H. 01 November 1918 Enlisted US Army
Milton, Louis N.
Moore, Henry C.
Morgan, Allen Corporal
Morton, Charles L.
Moynahan, Leo 03 September 1918 Drafted US Army
Mulrooney, James E. 18 March 1919 Removal from state
Mylor, John B. Sergeant
Newby, William P.
O’Day, Earl E.
Ott, Frank W.
Perkins, Orah D.
Pitman, John R.
Reese, Charles Sergeant
Reese, Robert Sergeant
Richie, Ernest B.
Rowlett, Walter D.
Rye, Embrey A.
Sallee, Arthur F.
Sallee, E. E. Corporal
Sampson, William M. Cook
Sharkey, Owen P. Sergeant
Simcox, George D.
Simpson, Chester R. 19 August 1918 Enlisted US Army
Spradling, William M. 19 August 1918 Drafted US Army
Stanley, Arthur Mess Sergeant
Stegiger, Emil W. 03 September 1918 Enlisted US Army
Wells, John R.
White, Robert J.
Wilkerson, Alvin S. Sergeant
Williams, Arthur F.
Wilson, Arthur B. 03 September 1918 Enlisted US Navy
Wilson, Holton O.
Winburn, Ben W. Corporal
Company D – Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky.
“Latonia Rifles/Guards” “Latonia Band”
Muster-in: 06 August 1918. Muster-out: 29 March 1921
Captain Louis V. Crockett 06 August 1918.
First Lieutenant William J. Fagin 06 August 1918.
Second Lieutenant Arthur W. Klein 06 August 1918.
Mascot: William “Billy” Bernard O’Neal December 1918.
Enlisted and Non-Commissioned Officers, Company D:
Aggie, Fred Sergeant
Bantin, Thomas W. K. 13 May 1919 Removal from state
Barnhorn, John 17 May 1920 Court of Inquiry, failed to appear.
22 May 1920 Kenton Co. Court, Judge John Read
Dailey, Alfred B. 26 July 1920 Removal from State.
Ellison, F. A. 17 May 1920 Court of Inquiry, failed to report for duty.
Fetters, _____ Sergeant
Forbriger, Emil A. 1SGT 13 May 1919 Removal from state
Friedl, R. 17 May 1920 Court of Inquiry, failed to report for duty
Getty, James 25 September 1918 Enlisted US Marine Corps
Greenfell, Richard 13 May 1919 Removal from state
Holmes, John Winfred 02 April 1919 Physical disability
Hufnagel, L. 17 May 1920 Court of Inquiry, failed to report for duty.
Kirby, W. Keller, Dr. 17 May 1920 Court of Inquiry, failed to report for duty.
Lamb, Clifton 13 May 1919 Removal from state
Macke, William M., Jr. 17 May 1920 Court of Inquiry, failed to report for duty.
Manson, Lewis L. Sergeant, Covington Police Judge
Mason, Charles G.
Mason, William Sergeant
Matlack, Robert 17 May 1920 Court of Inquiry, failed to report for duty.
McCartney, Neil 13 May 1919 inability to attend, business.
Moore, Elmer 09 February 1920 Shot in groin at Lexington during mob
violence, William Lockett trial
Nielander, J. 17 May 1920 Court of Inquiry, failed to report for duty.
Palmer, L. M. Sergeant
Price, _____ Sergeant
Rea, Fred 02 April 1919 Removal from state
Runyon. H. C.
Scaggs, V. W. 17 May 1920 Court of Inquiry, failed to report for duty.
Steinborn, Edward Corporal
Stephens, Thomas 10 March 1919 Enlisted US Navy
Webb, A. M. 17 May 1920 Court of Inquiry, failed to report for duty.
Webb, William Warfield 13 May 1919 Physical disability
William, Maurice 17 May 1920 Sergeant, Court of Inquiry, failed to appear.
22 May 1918 Kenton Co. Court, Judge John Read
Wolking, R. A. 17 May 1920 Court of Inquiry, failed to report for duty.
Machine Gun Detachment – Leitchfield, Grayson County, Kentucky.
[This was a machine-gun detachment. At least ten personnel were assigned to this detachment, unable to locate a complete roster.]
Captain William W. Taylor 12 February 1920
First Sergeant William W. Proctor
Private Phillips, Lester C. 07 September 1920 Enlisted US Navy